Glossary of Terms


Ballast

An auxiliary piece of equipment required to start and to properly control the flow of current to gas discharge light sources such as fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID) lamps. Typically, magnetic ballasts (also called electromagnetic ballasts) contain copper windings on an iron core while electronic ballasts are smaller and more efficient and contain electronic components

Ballast Factor (BF)

This is the percentage of a lamp’s rated lumen output that can be expected when operated on a specific, commercially available ballast. Note that the “rated output” is sometimes measured on a reference ballast unlike ones that actually operate the lamp in the field. For example, a ballast with a ballast factor of 0.93 will result in the lamp’s emitting 93% of its rated lumen output. A ballast with a lower BF results in less light output and also generally consumes less power.

Ceramic Metal Halide

A type of metal halide lamp that uses a ceramic material for the arc tube instead of glass quartz, resulting in better color rendering (>80 CRI) and improved lumen maintenance.

Color Rendering Index (CRI)

An international system used to rate a lamp’s ability to render object colors. The higher the CRI (based upon a 0-100 scale) the richer colors generally appear. CRI ratings of various lamps may be compared, but a numerical comparison is only valid if the lamps are close in color temperature. CRI differences among lamps are not usually significant (visible to the eye) unless the difference is more than 3–5 points.

Color Temperature (Correlated Color Temperature – CCT)

A number indicating the degree of “yellowness” or “blueness” of a white light source. Measured in kelvins, CCT represents the temperature an incandescent object (like a filament) must reach to mimic the color of the lamp. Yellowish-white (“warm”) sources, like incandescent lamps, have lower color temperatures in the 2700K–3000K range; white and bluish-white (“cool”) sources, such as cool white (4100K) and natural daylight (6000K), have higher color temperatures. The higher the color temperature the whiter, or bluer, the light will be.

Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL)

The general term applied to fluorescent lamps that are single-ended and that have smaller diameter tubes that are bent to form a compact shape. Some CFLs have integral ballasts and medium or candelabra screw bases for easy replacement of incandescent lamps.

Cool White

A term loosely used to denote a color temperature of around 4100K. The Cool White (CW) designation is used specifically for T12 and other fluorescent lamps using halophosphors and having a CRI of 62.

Electronic Ballast

A short name for a fluorescent high-frequency electronic ballast. Electronic ballasts use solidstate electronic components and typically operate fluorescent lamps at frequencies greater than 25 kHz. The benefits are: increased lamp efficacy, reduced ballast losses and lighter, smaller ballasts compared to electromagnetic ballasts. Electronic ballasts may also be used with HID (high intensity discharge) lamps (see MAGNETIC BALLASTS).

Electronic HID Ballast

An electronic ballast capable of operating an HID lamp.

Efficiency

The efficiency of a light source is simply the fraction of electrical energy converted to light, i.e. watts of visible light produced for each watt of electrical power with no concern about the wavelength where the energy is being radiated. For example, a 100-watt incandescent lamp converts 7% of the electrical energy into light; discharge lamps convert 25% to 40% into light. The efficiency of a luminaire or fixture is the percentage of the lamp lumens that actually comes out of the fixture (see LUMINAIRE EFFICIENCY).

Efficiency of Ballast

The ratio of output power divided by input power. A premium ballast would have an electrical efficiency greater than 90%. The efficiency of a luminaire or fixture is the percentage of the lamp lumens that actually comes out of the fixture.

High-Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamp

HPS lamps are high intensity discharge light sources that produce light by an electrical discharge through sodium vapor operating at relatively high pressures and temperatures.

Group Relamping

The practice of replacing all the lamps at an installation at one time with new lamps when the lamps have operated for (typically) 65% to 70% of rated life. The two benefits of group relamping are: (1) reduced maintenance costs because of the expense and inconvenience of replacing failing lamps one at a time, and (2) improved appearance and performance since older lamps are often degrading in brightness and color as they age.

Halogen Lamp

A halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp with a filament that is surrounded by halogen gases, such as iodine or bromine. Halogen gases allow the filaments to be operated at higher temperatures and higher efficacies. The halogen participates in a tungsten transport cycle, returning tungsten to the filament and prolonging lamp life. All halogen lamps have a tungsten filament and, often, a quartz envelope.

Illuminance

The “density” of light (lumens/area) incident on a surface; i.e. the light level on a surface. Illuminance is measured in footcandles or lux.

Incandescent Lamp

A light source that generates light utilizing a thin filament wire (usually of tungsten) heated to white heat by an electric current passing through it.

Indirect Lighting

The method of lighting a space by directing the light from luminaires upwards towards the ceiling. The light scattered off the ceiling produces a soft, diffuse illumination for the entire area.

Induction Lighting

Gases can be excited directly by radio-frequency or microwaves from a coil that creates induced electromagnetic fields. This is called induction lighting and it differs from a conventional discharge, which uses electrodes to carry current into the arc. Induction lamps have no electrodes inside the chamber and generally, therefore, have longer life than standard lamps. Genura® is an example of an induction lamp.

Fluorescent HO

Fluorescent HO and VHO lamps require special ballasts that generate higher currents than standard ballasts and operate the lamps at higher wattage than standard lamps. These lamps are generally less efficient than the standard product. Metal Halide HO and XHO lamps operate on the same ballasts as standard lamps and at the same wattage but are more efficient and produce higher light output than standard lamps.

Fluorescent Lamp

A high efficiency lamp utilizing an electric discharge through low pressure mercury vapor to produce ultra-violet (UV) energy. The UV excites phosphor materials applied as a thin layer on the inside of a glass tube which makes up the structure of the lamp. The phosphors transform the UV to visible light.

Footcandle (fc)

A unit of illuminance or light falling onto a surface. It stands for the light level on a surface one foot from a standard candle. One footcandle is equal to one lumen per square foot (see Lux).

Four-Pin Compact Fluorescent Lamps

A “plug-in” compact fluorescent lamp with 4 pins in the base to make electrical contact with the ballast. Four-pin lamps can be dimmed on appropriate dimming ballasts while two-pin lamps cannot.

High-Efficiency (Energy Saving)

Electromagnetic Ballast

Ballast with core & coils, designed to minimize ballast losses compared to the “standard” ballast.

Highbay Lighting

Lighting designed for (typically) industrial locations with a ceiling height of 25 feet and above.

High Intensity Discharge (HID) Lamp

A general term for mercury, metal halide  and high-pressure sodium lamps. HID lamps contain compact arc tubes which enclose various gases and metal salts operating at relatively high pressures and temperatures.

Instant Start

A type of ballast designed to start fluorescent lamps as soon as the power is applied. Most T8 fluorescent lamps are being operated on electronic instant-start ballasts. Slimline fluorescent lamps operate only on instant-start circuits.

Instant-Start Lamp

A fluorescent lamp, usually with a single pin at each end, approved to operate on instant-start ballasts. The lamp is ignited by a high voltage without any filament heating.

Lumen

A measure of luminous flux or quantity of light emitted by a source. For example, a dinner candle provides about 12 lumens. A 60-watt Soft White incandescent lamp provides 840 lumens.

Lumen Depreciation, Lumen Maintenance

A measure of how well a lamp maintains its light output over time. It may be expressed numerically or as a graph of light output vs. time. The “mean lumens” of a lamp is the lumens at 40% of rated life (50% for HPS lamp).

Lumens Per Watt (lpW)

A ratio expressing the luminous efficacy of a light source. Typical lamp efficiencies:
Edison’s first lamp……………………..

………………….1.4 lpW
Incandescent lamps…………………………………………10-20
Halogen lamps…………………………………………………..15-30
Fluorescent lamps………………………………………….35-105
Mercury lamps……………………………………………………50-60
Metal halide lamps…………………………………………60-120
High-pressure sodium lamps………………………60-140

Note:

The values above for discharge lamps do not include the effect of the ballasts, which must be used with those lamps. Taking ballast losses into account reduces “system” or lamp ballast efficacies typically by 10-20% depending upon the type of ballast used.

Luminaire

A complete lighting unit consisting of a lamp (or lamps), ballast (or ballasts) as required together with the parts designed to distribute the light, position and protect the lamps and connect them to the power supply. A luminaire is often referred to as a fixture.

Luminaire Efficiency

The ratio of total lumens emitted by a luminaire to those emitted by the lamp or lamps used in that luminaire.

Luminance

A photometric measure of “brightness” of a surface as seen by the observer, measured in candelas per square meter.

Luminous Efficacy

The light output (lumens) of a light source divided by the total power input (watts) to that source. It is expressed in lumens per watt

Mean Lumens

The average light output of a lamp over its rated life. Based on the shape of the lumen depreciation curve, for fluorescent and metal halide lamps, mean lumens are measured at 40% of rated lamp life. For mercury, high-pressure sodium and incandescent lamps, mean lumen ratings refer to lumens at 50% of rated lamp life (see Lumen Maintenance).

Medium Base

Usually refers to the screw base typically used in household incandescent lamps. There is also the medium bi-pin base commonly used in T12 and T8 fluorescent lamps.

Mercury Lamp

A high-intensity discharge light source operating at a relatively high pressure (about 1 atmosphere) and temperature in which most of the light is produced by radiation from excited mercury vapor. Phosphor coatings on some lamp types add additional light and improve color rendering.

Metal Cases

Case design used in both magnetic and electronic ballasts. These ballasts are grounded once they are mounted to the fixture. They meet all safety codes, some of which do not allow plastic in open plenum areas.

Metal Halide Lamp

A high-intensity discharge light source in which the light is produced by the radiation from mercury, plus halides of metals such as sodium, scandium, indium and dysprosium. Some lamp types may also utilize phosphor coatings.

Mogul Base

A screw base used on larger lamps, e.g. many HID lamps.

Kelvins

(see color temperature ).

Kilowatt (kW)

A measure of electrical power equal to 1000 watts.

Kilowatt Hour (kWh)

The standard measure of electrical energy and the typical billing unit used by electrical utilities for electricity use. A 100-watt lamp operated for 10 hours consumes 1000 watt-hours (100 x 10) or one kilowatt-hour. If the utility charges $.10/kWh, then the electricity cost for the 10 hours of operation would be 10 cents (1 x $.10).

Laminations

Layers of steel, making up the “core” that is surrounded by the coils in a core & coil ballast.

Lamp

The term used to refer to the complete light source package, including the inner parts as well as the outer bulb or tube. “Lamp,” of course, is also commonly used to refer to a type of small light fixture such as a table lamp.

Lamp Current Crest Factor

Ratio of peak lamp current to RMS or average lamp operating current.

Lamp Types

Filament lamps: Incandescent, Halogen, Halogen-IR Discharge Lamps: Fluorescent, HID (High Intensity Discharge) HID Lamps: Mercury, HPS (High-Pressure Sodium), MH (Metal Halide) and CMH (Ceramic Metal Halide)

Normal Power Factor

Ballasts with power factor less than .90 and do not incorporate any means of Power Factor Correction.

PAR Lamp

PAR is an acronym for parabolic aluminized reflector. A PAR lamp, which may utilize either an incandescent filament, a halogen filament tube or an HID arc tube, is a precision pressed-glass reflector lamp. PAR lamps rely on both the internal reflector and prisms in the lens for the control of the light beam.

Programmed Rapid Start

Lamp starting method which preheats the lamp filaments while not allowing the lamp to ignite and then applies the open circuit voltage (OCV) to start the lamp. The user may experience a half- to one-second delay after turning on the lamps while the preheating takes place. This type of starting circuit keeps lamp end blackening to a minimum and improves lamp life performance, especially in applications where the lamps are frequently switched on and off.

Pulse Start

A lamp that requires an HID ballast with a highvoltage ignitor to start the lamp.

Quartz

A name for fused silica or melted sand from which many high-temperature containers are fashioned in the lighting industry. Quartz looks like glass but can withstand the high temperatures needed to contain high-intensity arc discharges.

Quartz-Halogen Lamp

(see Halogen Lamp).

Rapid Start

Lamp starting method in which lamp filaments are heated while open circuit voltage (OCV) is applied to facilitate lamp ignition. A Rapid Start fluorescent lamp has two pins at each end connected to the filament. Some rapid start lamps may be instant-started without filament heat, for example, the F32T8 lamp.

Rated Lamp Life

For most lamp types, rated lamp life is the length of time of a statistically large sample between first use and the point when 50% of the lamps have died. It is possible to define “useful life” of a lamp based on practical considerations involving lumen depreciation, color shift and also on the need to reduce lamp replacement costs (see GROUP RELAMPING).

Reflector Lamp (R)

A light source with a built-in reflecting surface. Sometimes, the term is used to refer specifically to blown bulbs like the “R” and “ER” lamps; at other times, it includes all reflectorized lamps like PAR and MR.

Self-Ballasted Lamps

A discharge lamp with an integral ballasting device allowing the lamp to be directly connected to a socket providing line voltage (see CFL).

Warm White

Refers to a color temperature around 3000K, providing a yellowish-white light.

Watt

A unit of electrical power. Lamps are rated in watts to indicate the rate at which they consume energy (see Kilowatt Hour).